Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2017, Page: 1-7
Gender Perception on the Health and Environmental Hazards of Pesticide Usage among Cocoa Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Olowoyo Olamide Ahmed, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile–Ife, Nigeria
Deji Olanike Fasilat, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile–Ife, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 19, 2016;       Accepted: Jan. 4, 2017;       Published: Jan. 20, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.jher.20170301.11      View  3302      Downloads  125
Abstract
The study was conducted in Ekiti State, Nigeria among male and female cocoa farmers, to assess the gender differential in perception of the health and environmental hazards of pesticides usage. Multi stage purposive sampling technique was used to select 120 male cocoa farmers and 120 female cocoa farmers to make a total of 240 respondents for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data. The result showed that male cocoa farmers, likewise female cocoa are vulnerable to health, (tearing and redness of eyes, body pain, headache) hazards, likewise they also indicated their experience of environmental (air pollution, pollute streams) hazards. About 64% Male and 54% female cocoa farmers had a positive perception of the health and environmental hazards of pesticides usage but there was a significant difference between male and female cocoa farmers perception of pesticides hazards. It was concluded that majority male as well as female cocoa farmers in Ekiti State were vulnerable to one pesticide hazards or the other. Adequate and frequent training was recommended for male and female cocoa farmers on pesticides hazards, at the same time less reliance on pesticides usage to reduce vulnerability to the hazards.
Keywords
Pesticides Hazards, Gender Differential, Perception, Pest and Diseases, Cocoa Production
To cite this article
Olowoyo Olamide Ahmed, Deji Olanike Fasilat, Gender Perception on the Health and Environmental Hazards of Pesticide Usage among Cocoa Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria, Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.jher.20170301.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Famuyiwa, B. S. Torimiro, D. O. and Adesoji, S. A. 2013: Determination of Cocoa Farmers’ Knowledge on Environmental Hazards Associated with Cocoa Farming Operations in Nigeria, International Journal of Knowledge, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Volume 1 Nos. 1– 2, 2013, pp. 58—70.
[2]
Are, L. A. and Gwynne-Jones 1974: Cocoa in West Africa. Oxford University Press, Ibadan, 146pp.
[3]
Fasina, A. B., Badaru, K. and Aikpokpodion P. O. 2001: Development of the Nigerian cocoa industry: current issues and challenges for research and production. Proc. 13thInt. Cocoa Res. Conf. 2001, pp. 1367–1373. 215 African Scientist Vol. 7, No. 4 (2006).
[4]
International Cocoa Organization ICCO 2010: ICCO Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics, Vol. XXXVI, No. 4, Cocoa year 2009/2010. Published: 30-11-2010 (www.icco.org).
[5]
Cocoa Association of Nigeria (CAN) 2014: http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/why-cote-d-ivoire-ghana-lead-nigeria-in cocoa-production-by-can/172858/.
[6]
Asogwa, E. U. Ojelade, J. C. Anikwe J. C. and Ndubuaku T. C. N. 2006a: Insect pests of cocoa, kola, coffee, cashew, tea and their control. Answers Communication Concepts, Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria, 140pp.
[7]
International Cocoa Organization ICCO 2008: ICCO Manual of best known practices in cocoa production. Version 1. Consultative Board on the world cocoa economy sixteenth meeting Berlin, Monday, 26 May 2008.
[8]
Asogwa, E. U. and Dongo, L. N. 2009: Problems associated with pesticide usage and application in Nigerian cocoa production: A review; African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (8), pp. 675-683.
[9]
Lawal, B. O. Torimiro, D. O. Banjo, A. D. and. Joda, A. O. 2005: Operational Habits and Health Hazards Associated with Pesticide Usage by Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria: Lessons for Extension Work. J. Hum. Ecol., 17 (3): 191-195.
[10]
Sosan M. B. and Akingbohungbe A. E. 2009 Occupational Insecticide Exposure and Perception of Safety Measures among Cacao Farmers in South-western Nigeria. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, Vol. 64, No. 3.
[11]
Ogunjimi, S. I. and Farinde, A. J. 2012: Farmers’ Knowledge Level of Precautionary Measures in Agro-Chemicals Usage on Cocoa Production in Osun and Edo States, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2 (4): 186-194.
[12]
Enete, A. A. and Amusa, T. A. 2010: Determinants of Women’s Contribution to Farming Decisions in Cocoa Based Agroforestry Households of Ekiti State, Nigeria “Field Actions Science Reports.” 4: 0–6.
[13]
Mohammed, B. T. and Abdulquadri, A. F. 2012: Comparative analysis of gender involvement in agricultural production in Nigeria. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics Vol. 4 (8), pp. 240-244.
[14]
Deji O. F. 2011: Gender and Rural Development. Berlin Series on Society, Economy and Politics in Developing Countries Vol 106. ISBN 978-3-643-90103-3 Pp 21.
[15]
Bem, S. L. 1981: Gender schema theory: a cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354‐364.
[16]
Martin, C. L. and Halverson, C. F. 1981: A schematic processing model of sex typing and stereotyping in children. Child Development, 52, 1119‐1134.
[17]
Nigeria population commission (NPC) 2006: Population census of National Republic of Nigeria: http://www.population.gov.ng/index.php/ekiti-state.
[18]
Johnston, A. E. 1986: "Soil organic-matter, effects on soils and crops". Soil Use Management 2: 97–105.
[19]
Kellogg, R. L. Nehring, R. Grube, A. Goss, D. W. and Plotkin, S. 2000: Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.
[20]
Gilliom, R. J. Barbash, J. E. Crawford, G. G. Hamilton, P. A. Martin, J. D. Nakagaki, N, Nowell, L. H. Scott, J. C. Stackelberg, P. E. Thelin, G. P. and Wolock, D. M. 2007: The Quality of our nation’s waters: Pesticides in the nation’s streams and ground water, 1992–2001. Chapter 1, Page 4. US Geological Survey.
[21]
Deepa T. V. Lakshmi, G. Lakshmi P. S. and Sreekanth S. K. 2011: Ecological Effects of Pesticides http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/21991/InTech-Ecological_effects_of_pesticides.pdf.
Browse journals by subject