Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2018, Page: 16-20
Geographical Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis Among Children in Dhamar Governorate, Yemen
Abdulhakim Ali Mohammed Al-Selwi, Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Dhamar University, Dhamar, Yemen
Ahmed Hamood Alshehari, Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Dhamar University, Dhamar, Yemen
Mohamed Abdulhadi Albahloly, Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Dhamar University, Dhamar, Yemen
Received: Jul. 7, 2017;       Accepted: Jul. 18, 2017;       Published: Mar. 6, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.jher.20180401.13      View  2592      Downloads  172
This is a retrospective study to describe the geographical distribution of visceral leishmaniasis among children in Dhamar governorate, Yemen and to assess the outcomes of the chemotherapeutic management. It was conducted at Al -Wahdah University Hospital, Mabar, Dhamar governorate from April 2015 to March 2016. The study population were all the patients admitted to the hospital having the disease and the data sourced from the patients ‘charts using a performa sheet. Fifty-seven pediatric patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis were registered during the study period. The mean age was 3.51±2.4 years and all cases were from Dhamar governorate. All cases presented with fever and splenomegaly. All children were severely anemic and the mean haemoglobin concentration was (6.51±2.82 g/dl). The mean duration of symptoms prior to admission was 98.28±10.6 days and the mean hospital stay was 22.07±15.3 days. The cure rate after hospital management was 94.7%. Death had occurred in 3 cases (5.2%) mostly seen among younger age, and with prolonged illness prior to hospitalization. This study confirmed the presence of VL cases in Dhamar governorate, most frequently affected children below four years of age with excellent response to chemotherapeutic drug. The extension of visceral leishmaniasis infection to involve the highest central regions indicates that the disease tend to spread to other unusual parts of the country. Such a new distribution combined with lack of vital recording and reporting make the efforts to approximate the figure of true incidence difficult.
Visceral Leishmaniasis, Paediatrics, Yemen
To cite this article
Abdulhakim Ali Mohammed Al-Selwi, Ahmed Hamood Alshehari, Mohamed Abdulhadi Albahloly, Geographical Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis Among Children in Dhamar Governorate, Yemen, Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018, pp. 16-20. doi: 10.11648/j.jher.20180401.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Albuquerque PL, Silva Júnior GB, Freire CC, Oliveira SB, Almeida DM, Silva HF, et al. Urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Pan Am J Public Health. 2009, 26 (4): 330-333.
Olliaro PL, Guerin PJ, Gerstl S, Haaskjold AA, Rottingen JA, Sundar S. Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980-2004. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Dec; 5 (12): 763-74.
World Health Organization. Leishmaniasis Disease Burden. Available from:http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis [Last cited on 2015 August 19].
Holtez PJ, Molyneux DH, Sachs SE, Fenwick A, Kumerasan J, Sacks JD, et al. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 1018–27.
Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A. Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW et al. Visceral leishmaniasis:what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control?. Nature Review/Microbiology 2007; 5: 873-828.
Rocha NA, Júnior GB, Oliveira MJ, Abreu KL, Franco LF, Silva MP, Garcia AV, Daher EF. Visceral leishmaniasis in children: a cohort of 120 patients in a metropolitan city of Brazil. The Turkish journal of pediatrics. 2011 Mar 1; 53 (2): 154.
Pastorino C, Jacob CMA, Oselka GW & Carneiro-Sampaio MS. Visceral leishmaniasis: clinical and laboratorial aspects. J Pediatr 2002; 78: 120–127.
Queiroz M J, Alves J G, Correia J B. Visceral leishmaniasis: clinical and epidemiological features of children in an endemic area. Journal de pediatria, 2004; 80 (2): 141-146.
Hamid GA, Gobah GA. Clinical and hematological manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in Yemeni children. Cough. 2009 1 (29): 45-3.
Al-Selwi AA, Al Sherei AG, Al Magrami AS. Clinical and epidemiological features of visceral leishmaniasis Among children in Yemen: one referral hospital review. Sudan Medical Journal. 2016; 52: 7-15.
Central Statistical Organization. Census 2004. Available at http://www.geohive.com/cntry/yemen.aspx (accessed 4 Jan 2017.
Cavalcante LJ, Vale MR. Epidemiological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Ceará in the period 2007 to 2011. Ver Bras Epidemiol. 2014; 17: 911-24.
Salam, N, Al-Shaqha WM, and Arezki A. "Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology." PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014; 8 (10): e3208. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003208.
El Sawaf BM, Kassem HA, Mogalli NM, El Hossary SS, Ramadan NF. Current knowledge of sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) ofnorthwestern Yemen and how it relates to leishmaniasis transmission. Acta Tropica 2016; 162: 11–19.
Gülez P, Gülez N, DevrimF, Erdoğan DB. Delay in Diagnosis in Children with Visceral leishmaniasis: A Single-Center Experience. J Pediatr Inf 2015; 9: 12-6.
Haidar NA, Diab AB, El-Sheik AM. Visceral Leishmaniasis in children in the Yemen. Saudi Med J 2001; 22: 156-9.
Pace D, Williams TN, Grochowska A Betts A, Attard-Montalto S, Boffa MJ et al. Manifestations of paediatric Leishmania infantum infections in Malta. Travel medicine and infectious disease, 2011; 9 (1): 37-46.
JamilL A, Zafer M, AL-Fifi S, AL-JARIE A, AL-SHRAIM M, SHABANA M et al. Clinical and Pathological Features of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Pediatric Patients, Aseer Province, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Med J Cairo Univ 2012; 80 (2): 121-6.
Varma, Neelam, and Shano Naseem. "Hematologic changes in visceral leishmaniasis/kala azar." Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion 2010; 26(3): 78-82.
Sampaio m. JAQ, Cavalcanti NV., Alves JGB., Filho MJCF. and Correia J. B.: Risk Factors for Death in Children with Visceral Leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2010; 4 (11): e877.
Daniel SO, Veronica MA, Soledad SM. Visceral leishmaniasis: Path that converge and divide. Salud Colectiva, Buenos Aires 2012; 8 (suppl 1): 549-563.
Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, et al.) Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 581-596.
Davies CR, Kaye P, Croft SL, Sundar S. Leishmaniasis: new approaches to disease control. BMJ 2003; 326: 377-382.
Ritmeijer K, Dejenie A, Assefa Y, Hundie TB, Mesure J, Boots G, et al. A comparison of miltefosine and sodium stibogluconate for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in an Ethiopian population with high prevalence of HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 43: 357–64.
Moore EM, Lockwood DN. Treatment of Visceral leishmaniasis. J Glob Infect Dis. 2010; 2 (2): 151–158.
Bessat M, Okpanma AC, Shanat ES. Leishmaniasis: Epidemiology, Control and Future Perspectives with Special Emphasis on Egypt. J Trop Dis 2015; 2: 153.
Collin S, Davidson R, Ritmeijer K, Keus K, Melaku Y, Kipngetich S, et al. Conflict and kala-azar: determinants of adverse outcomes of kala-azar among patients in southern Sudan. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 612-619.
Browse journals by subject